Wednesday, 18 December 2013

Monosaccharide

Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar; British English monosaccharaides) are the most basic units of carbohydrates. They are the simplest form of sugar and are usually colorlesswater-solublecrystalline solids. Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste. Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose) and galactose. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch). Further, each carbon atom that supports a hydroxyl group (except for the first and last) is chiral, giving rise to a number of isomeric forms all with the same chemical formula. For instance, galactose and glucose are both aldohexoses, but have different physical structures and chemical properties.

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